The Problem: Tobacco use is a source of chronic and fatal illnesses for users and persons with secondary exposure. Smoking is responsible for approximately 1 in 5 deaths in the United States, causing 480,000 deaths annually. Smoking increases risk for stroke by 2-4 times, coronary heart disease by 2-4 times, lung cancer by about 25 times, and lowers overall health. Quitting smoking vastly reduces risk; within 2-5 of cessation, risk of stroke drops to that of a non-smoker.
The Problem: In 2018, obesity affected 1 in 5 children and adolescents and 39.9% of adults in the U.S.. Each condition increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and some cancers. CDC: Obesity Statistics Regular physical activity reduces the risk of obesity and has many other health benefits. Yet, only half ofof adults in the United States get the recommended amount of physical activity.
The Problem: The maltreatment of children is a tragically common occurrence in the United States with a devastating impact on the health of young Americans. The direct effects of child maltreatment for victims include injuries and a host of stress-induced harms including poor psychological health, obesity, eating disorders and suicide.
The Problem: Violence is a major public health problem. There were more than 19,500 deaths from homicide in 2017 CDC: National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). In addition to directly causing acute injuries, emotional harm, and deaths, crime may undermine population health through indirect mechanisms. For example, high rates of crime make outdoor exercise unsafe, contributing to lower levels of physical activity. Crime also adds to the burden of stress for people living in high crime areas.
The Problem: Firearms are the second leading cause of injury and deaths in the United States, accounting for 30,896 deaths and 71,417 injuries in 2006. More than 80 percent of teen homicides and almost half of teen suicides involved a gun in 2005. CDC: WISQUARS. More than half of all homicides involve a gun.U.S. Department of Justice: Crime Statistics.
The Problem: Domestic violence – the physical, sexual, or emotional abuse of intimate partners or cohabiters – is a significant public health problem. In the U.S., 25 percent of women and 10 percent of men have experienced some form of intimate partner violence in their lifetime. CDC Factsheet: Intimate Partner Violence. Sexual violence is a particularly common occurrence in intimate relationships.
The Problem: Motor vehicle accidents are one of the largest sources of public health harms. Annually, in the U.S., more than 32,000 are killed in motor vehicle crashes and an additional 2 million are injured. CDC: Motor Vehicle Safety Factsheet.CDC Fact Sheet: Motor Vehicle Safety. Adverse weather conditions including snow and ice contribute to the incidence of motor vehicle crashes.
The Problem: Vaccine coverage for preventable disease is an essential public health goal. Low vaccine coverage rates enable otherwise avoidable outbreaks of harmful diseases. CDC: Vaccines and Immunizations.