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Transfer of Juvenile Offenders to Adult Criminal Courts

The Problem: Youth violence is an enormous public health problem in the United States, with homicide standing as the third leading cause of death for people between the ages of 10 and 24.  CDC: Youth Violence Fast Facts. Juvenile court systems have often been criticized for inadequately deterring and poorly preventing recidivism among violent youthful offenders.  Steiner B, Hemmens C, Bell V.  Legislative W

 
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Court-Mandated Interventions for Individuals Convicted of Domestic Violence

The Problem: Domestic violence – the physical, sexual, or emotional abuse of intimate partners or cohabiters – is a significant public health problem. In the U.S., 25 percent of women and 10 percent of men have experienced some form of intimate partner violence in their lifetime. CDC Factsheet: Intimate Partner Violence. Sexual violence is a particularly common occurrence in intimate relationships.

 
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The Effects of Drug Courts on Recidivism

The Problem: Illicit drug use is a well-recognized public health problem. Overdose and other less acute harms are associated with the non-medical use of controlled substances. The policy response to illicit drug use in the United States has historically focused on a punitive model. Resulting high rates of incarceration have placed large numbers of non-violent offenders into correctional facilities. Life in prison exposes inmates to numerous health risks.

 
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Cigarette Excise Taxes and Tobacco Cessation

The Problem: Tobacco use is a source of chronic and fatal illnesses for users and persons with secondary exposure. Smoking is responsible for approximately one in five deaths in the United States, causing 480,000 deaths annually. Smoking increases risk for stroke by as much as four times, coronary heart disease by as much as four times, lung cancer by about 25 times, and diminishes overall health. Quitting smoking vastly reduces risk; within 2-5 years following cessation, risk of stroke drops to that of a non-smoker.

 
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Bicycle Helmet Laws

The Problem: Head injury is the leading cause of injury and death in bicycling accidents. Survivors of crashes may face lifelong chronic complications associated with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Bicycle helmet use reduces the risk of injury by 80%, although they are underutilized by all age groups. CDC: Injury Prevention and Control.

 
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Raising Alcohol Tax Levels to Reduce Drinking

The Problem: Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for various public health harms. Impaired driving is one of the largest contributors to motor vehicle crashes. Each year in the United States more than 10,000 people die in motor vehicle crashes involving an alcohol-impaired driver. In 2016, these crashes accounted for almost a third of all U.S. traffic-related deaths.

 
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