This series of six reports explores the role of law in housing equity and exploring innovative uses of law to improve health equity through housing.
In the United States, preemption is a legal doctrine that allows upper levels of government to restrict or even prevent a lower-level government from self-regulating. While it is most often thought of in the context of the federal government’s preemption of states, preemption is increasingly being used as a tool by states to limit cities, counties and other lower-level municipalities from legislating across a broad array of issues.
The Problem: Widespread vaccine coverage for preventable disease is an essential public health goal Healthy People 2020 Low vaccine coverage rates enable otherwise avoidable outbreaks of harmful diseases. CDC: Vaccines and Immunizations. Clinicians tend to acute and chronic conditions before preventive considerations, resulting in lack of time for vaccinations.
The Problem: In 2018, obesity affected 1 in 5 children and adolescents and 39.9% of adults in the U.S.. Each condition increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and some cancers. CDC: Obesity Statistics Regular physical activity reduces the risk of obesity and has many other health benefits. Yet, only half ofof adults in the United States get the recommended amount of physical activity.
The Problem: Motor vehicle accidents are one of the largest sources of public health harms. Annually, in the U.S., more than 32,000 are killed in motor vehicle crashes and an additional 2 million are injured. CDC: Motor Vehicle Safety Factsheet. CDC Fact Sheet: Motor Vehicle Safety. Adverse weather conditions including snow and ice contribute to the incidence of motor vehicle crashes.
The Problem: The operation of motor vehicles while intoxicated is a major public health problem. In 2016, roughtly 10,500 people died in motor vehicle crashes involving an alcohol-impaired driver, accounting for nearly 1/3 of all traffic related deaths. CDC: Impaired Driving Factsheet. Approximately 6,500 (62%) of these individuals had a Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) level of 0.08 g/dL or higher. The remaining fatalities consisted of passengers (29%( and non-passengers (9%).
The Problem: Vaccine coverage for vaccine preventable disease is an essential public health goal. Vaccination against specific diseases is particularly important for high risk populations, which may include individuals of a certain age (e.g., greater than 68 years for Pneumococcal Polysaccharide) or with specified medical conditions (e.g., HIV/AIDS for influenza). CDC: General Recommendations on Immunization.
The Problem: In 2018, the seatbelt usage rate in the U.S. was nearly 90%, and saved an estimated 14,955 lives in 2017.